Reading is an important skill in learning English especially in countries where English as a foreign or second language (EFL/ESL). Browton in Nursucianty (2007:1) states that reading is very important to the students because reading helps to solidify the students’ grasp of vocabulary, structure, and complements of other language skills. Reading is necessary when students continue their study, especially at the university level. They need good reading skill for acquiring knowledge and learning new information.
Nowdays, the existence of the importance of reading will hopefully continue to increase our knowledge in the future (Fitriyaningsih, 2009:1). Nevertheless, there are still many people who never interest to read the books. So, they rarely to do reading activities. Reading activities may help students develop other their language skills.
In addition, people or students must be able to master English language and they need a competence in understanding the English text. It means that reading is very important skill in learning English. It is supported by Saukah (2002:17) who says that” Reading is the most important language skill to be devoted in the teaching and learning process”. Furthermore, Krashen and Carrel (1983:131) stated that reading is one of English language skills which can serve as an important source of comprehensible input and may take a significant contribution to the development of overall proficiencies.
In Indonesia education field, teaching reading is one important thing. Reading is the most emphasized in teaching and learning process. The main goal of teaching English is to make students able to read (Ria, 2007). It means that the main goal of English teaching and learning for Indonesian students is to comprehend the text that they must understand the written or printed information. Furthermore, considering the needs of mastering reading is as one of the ways for mastering English. Reading skill is always given the main emphasis. Huda (1997:149) states that reading becomes the main point in curriculum 1994 in Indonesia that has to be mastered by students. For the realization, the 1994 curriculum, 2004 curriculum, and Competency Based Curriculum, emphasize that the students should master four components of language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing, where puts the reading skill first to be presented. Thus, reading skill is still given as a first priority.
However, reading skill was still difficult to be mastered by the students of Senior High School 1 Pomalaa, especially in grade XI IA 3. Based on the preliminary test conducted by the researcher shown that the reading achievement of students’ grade XI IA 3 at that school are only 25%. It shows that they did not reach 75 % of the target achivement which based on the curriculum of this school of the students can reach minimum achievement 6.3.The researcher observed that most students got difficulties when doing the task and answer the question that are related to the narrative text. Therefore, they could not search general information about the story. Beside, Mrs Amriani as English teacher said that the students usually got difficulties to comprehend the reading materials because they lack of vocabulary. Students found some unfamiliar words in the text. Therefore, they did not know the meaning in the reading passage.
In addition, they could not identify the generic structure (orientation, complication, and resolution) of narrative text. It based on the daily experiences from the teacher. They could not determine well between orientation, complication, and resolution from the story. A student who is poor in vocabulary can not read well and they cannot get the important idea from the reading passage. The larger vocabulary of students more accurately they will understand what they read (Kurniawati: 2004). When they asked about the features of narrative text, most of them just keep silent. So the learners needs to have more vocabulary aspect in order they able to read well and get information in the reading text. While, grammatical aspect is closely related with reading comprehension for both authors/writers and the readers. This supported by Alex (1988) that grammar in reading skill can help the readers to easily understand the information in the text.
From some student of class XI IA 3, the researcher had got information that they did not have enough background knowledge about the text because they were adopted from western story and they never hear or read before which different culture with them has. Therefore, students confused to the material because they lack of experience or poor prior knowledge about the reading text. The good readers combine the knowledge of the language (grammar and vocabulary) and knowledge of the world (background knowledge) through the use of reading strategies (Eskey, 1988; Carrell,1988).
Furthermore, based on pre observation activity conducted by the researcher found that the students did not pay attention to the teachers’ explanation and they did not focus toward reading material. Therefore, students could not appear their brainstorming before reading the text, so that they could not understand about what they read. Then, students got problem to determine the main idea in the text. They find difficulties to search information in each paragraph.
On the other hand, the teacher becomes more dominant than students in the teaching and learning process. In the other words, students learned more passive in the class. They rarely ask question of what they do not understand about reading text. As a result, students’ reading achievement is very low so that they can not achieve the standard target of the curriculum from this school.
Therefore, deal with the students’ problem, Students Team Achievement Division (STAD) technique would be one of good solutions because it has main idea to motivate students and help each other to master the skill that is presented by the teacher. In other words, this technique could make students more active, have high self confidence, and high motivation when do the task. In which they have to work hard to become the best team, as Ur (1976:279) says that learners will often be motivated to give their best not for the sake of the learning it self but in order to beat their opponents in a completion. Group contents tend on the whole to get better result than individual ones. They are more enjoyable, less tense and equally motivating. Furthermore, STAD allows students to work together and share their answer between they who have high level, average and low level in groups. They can get information what they found in reading text after the teacher’s lesson, but may not help each other with quizzes, so every students must know the material (individual accountability). Students may work in pair and compare answer, help each other if they found difficult task, discuss any discrepancies, and discuss to solving the problems.
Previous research conducted by Nursuciati (2007) shows that one of Cooperative learning techniques, namely STAD has good contribution in developing the students’ reading comprehension. She investigated the effect of STAD technique on the reading achievement of year two students of SMA Negeri 2 Bau-Bau. She took 41 students as the sample of the research and used multiple choice questions which consisted of 29 items. She applied one group pretest and posttest design giving treatment by using STAD technique five times, she found that reading achievement in post-test (6.93) was higher than in pre-test (4.69). Another researcher is Ranti (2010). She investigated of second year of SMP Negeri 3 Lainea. She took 23 students as the sample and used multiple choice, true false questions, and essay text. She found that the students’ reading comprehension who taught by STAD technique had a significant effect to improve students’ reading comprehension. The result is post test (6.36) was higher than pre test (5,02).
Both of the two previous researchers showed that STAD is a successful technique in learning because it is very useful to improve students reading achievement, the students can work together to practice their language ability. In which, they can change and share information, reinforce each other, give feedback and they are also responsible for their answers group. STAD is a simple technique of cooperative learning which consists of five major components, namely class presentation, teams, quizzes, individual improvement score and team recognition. Furthermore, students discuss and work together to get a good mark for their item. Using this technique, the students become learner center on teaching and learning process.
Therefore, the researcher is interested in applying the Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) technique to improve students’ reading achievement and to provide practical and theoretical solution on the teaching of reading in ESL/EFL context in general, and particularly in Senior High School 1 Pomalaa.
1.2 Research Question
Research question of this study is “Can STAD technique improve student’s reading achievement at grade XI IA 3 of Senior High School 1 Pomalaa “?
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objective of this study is to improve students’ reading achievement at grade XI IA 3 of Senior High School 1 Pomalaa under STAD technique
1.4 Significant of the study
The significances of this study are as follows:
1. To improve students’ reading achievement at the Grade XI IA 3 of Senior High School 1 Pomalaa.
2. To provide useful information for English teacher about the alternative method on teaching reading in English
3. To provide reliable resource for further researcher who want to conduct a research by using STAD technique
1.5 Scope of the study
The scope of this study focuses on students’ reading achievement, particularly in narrative text. The narrative texts include determining generic structure, language features, main idea, and general information from narrative text. The reading text is taken from school teaching learning material at Grade XI IA 3 Senior High School 1 Pomalaa.
1.6 Definition of Term
To obtain a good understanding to this study, it’s important to give definition of terms related to this study. The terms are as follow:
- STAD stands for (S is student, T is team, A is achievement, and D is Divisions). STAD is made up of five interlocking components: class presentations, teams, quizzes, individual improvement scores, and team recognition, (Slavin in Kagan 1994, p.17).
- Reading achievement is successful of assignment; it refers to someone’s proficiency which has obtained (Darta, 2002:20).
This chapter is literature review which consist of current research teaching of reading in EFL Setting, students reading competences and their achievement, cooperative learning and are elements, STAD is one of the techniques in cooperative learning, forming teams in STAD technique , teaching English reading via STAD Technique.
2.1 Current research on the teaching of reading in EFL Setting
Reading can be seen as an “interactive” process between a reader and a text which leads to automacity or reading fluency (Alyousef, 2006). In this process, the reader can interact directly with the text to get the meaning of the text. Grabe describes Godman’s perception of reading as an active process of comprehending where students need to be taught strategies to read more efficiently (e. g. guess from context, define expectations, make inferences about the text, skim ahead to fill in the context, etc. (1991, p. 377),
On the other hand, Paran (1996:25) has viewed of reading as an “activity involving constant guesses that are later rejected or confirmed”. This means that one does not read all the sentences in the same way, but one relies on a number of words or ‘cues’ to get an idea of what kind of sentence is might be followed. Thus, students need to use background knowledge to form a picture in their mind about the reading text and further they actually need to be able to predict what they are reading by using cues.
In teaching reading, Guthri (1996) states that engaged reading are based on the motivation and cognitive characteristic of the reader. This means that teacher has responsibilities to motivating reading by selecting appropriate materials especially related with social from reader and they interest with the text Teacher selecting task texts, they should seek interesting texts and consider variety of topics.
Tierney and Pearson (1985) states that the teacher needs to be sure of the students’ prior knowledge of the topic and the genre of the text before actually implementing the reading lesson. Intelligent selection and preparation before reading can also make the students’ reading more efficient and enjoyable. Thus, prior knowledge is important before, during and after reading texts enhances comprehension. Thus, ESL reading teachers can select or assist students select texts that they are interested in and familiar with linguistic level their students’ current level of reading competence. Furthermore, Hedge (2003) states that reading materials used in the reading class should also possess content matter that is familiar so that students can relate and make associations using their acquired as well as new knowledge.some researcher.
Recently, the current research in EFL/ESL context has been conducted by some researchers. particularly in teaching reading. Gathi (2003) investigated the effects of the Learning Together cooperative learning model in improving English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading achievement and academic self-esteem and in decreasing feelings of school alienation. Fifty-six Lebanese high school learners of EFL participated in the study, and a pretest-posttest control group experimental design was employed. The results indicated no statistically significant differences between the control and experimental groups on the dependent variables of academic self-esteem and feelings of school alienation. However, the results revealed a statistically significant difference in support of the experimental group on the variable of EFL reading achievement.
Furthermore, Wichadee (1994) had investigated the effects of cooperative learning on english reading skills and attitudes of the first-year students at Bangkok University. The sample was 40 first year students at Bangkok University. Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) program was used with the subject group over an eight week period by using instruments like reading comprehension test that consisted of 40 items, the questionnaire of attitudes towards cooperative learning, the cooperative learning behavioral assessment form, and the interview.
Wichadee administered the English reading comprehension test before and after teaching. Results indicated that students obtained higher reading comprehension scores for the post-test (8.5) than in pre-test (7.95) scores at the 0.05 significance level. As to their attitudes towards cooperative learning, the findings indicated that most students rated cooperative learning moderately positive. In addition, assessment forms also showed that students performed good cooperative learning behaviors in their tasks. Another research has been conducted teaching reading by using STAD technique. The first researcher is La Jikulamu (2002) who tried to compare the result of students’ reading achievement by using STAD and Jigsaw technique at the third year students of SLTP Muhammadiyah Kendari. His sample was 32 students for STAD technique and 32 students for Jigsaw technique. The instrument was multiple choice questions which consisted of 40 items. The result showed that in STAD technique, students’ reading achievement increased from 5.0 on pretest to 7.5 on posttest, while in Jigsaw technique students’ reading achievement on pretest was 5.3 and in posttest 8.0.
The second researcher is Nursuciati who conducted the study about the effect of STAD technique on the reading achievement of year two SMA Negeri 2 Bau-Bau. She used sample 41 students as the sample. The design that she applied was one group pre-test post-test design without control group. The instrument of her study was reading text which is followed by multiple choice questions. In conducting her study in STAD technique, Nursuciati explained the strategy that students should apply in searching the information they need (Scanning and Skimming) when the teaching and learning process was running. The result showed that there is any significant effect of STAD technique on reading achievement of year two SMA Negeri 2 Bau-bau where the result of reading achievement in post test (6.93) was higher than in pre test (4.69). The third researcher is Ranti (2010). She investigated of second year of SMP Negeri 3 Lainea. She took 23 students as the sample and used multiple choice, true false questions, and essay text. She found that the students’ reading comprehension who taught by STAD technique had a significant effect to improve students’ reading comprehension. The result is post test (6.36) was higher than pre test (5,02).
2.2 Students reading competence and their achievement
For the adult ESL, reading is a key to success in higher education, without reading, opportunities for understanding achievement educational objective are lost. Thus, there are 4 competences refers to underlying reading proficiency that foster second language reading development that related EFL Canale and Swain (1998). Firstly, grammatical competences. It refers to students concern to grammatical rules such as lexical, morphological, syntactical and phonological features of a language and to make use of those features to interpret and form words and sentences. Student shows grammatical competence not by stating a rule but by using a rule in the interpretation, expression, or negotiation of meaning (Savignon, 2002).
Secondly, sociolinguistic competences. This means that students understand of the authors’ purposes, genre, topic, etc. in reading students expected have socially and culturally in texts as well as recognizing the sociocultural implications of sentences. It also includes the knowledge of appropriate language production associated with different contexts and for different purposes, an understanding of language functions such as apologizing, making requests, or asking for information, an understanding of genres such as argumentative or expository texts. A reader is supposed to be able to interpret the meanings of sentences as shaped by the context.
Thirdly, discourse competences. This means that student understand the use of cohesive device such as identify the lexical cohesion, Deducing the meaning of sentences with the help of cohesive devices, Recognizing pronoun references and reference phrases, Recognizing the function/ role of discourse markers ,etc.
Fourthly, strategic competence. It refers to students has knowledge to using strategies for understanding the text. Strategic competence in reading involves the effective use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies to facilitate comprehension or repair the comprehension problems in case any occur while reading. Some examples are paying attention to word formation and using one’s morphological knowledge to guess word meanings, using one’s background knowledge to make smart guesses about the text content, monitoring comprehension failure and recognizing inconsistencies, guessing the meaning and use of unknown vocabulary from contextual clues, etc.
. Bayaktar (2005) has investigated that applying all of the competences students have difficulties to reading as a second language because some students were not able to effectively use reading strategies such as deductive and inductive interpretation, monitoring their comprehension and unknown vocabulary items is greater problem, they can not make inferences and guess the meaning of words from context. Another problem, students experienced was the incapability to follow lexical cohesion. They were not able to relate the concepts to each other and create a meaningful of the text. They get difficulty in getting the overall message of the texts as well as getting the main ideas of paragraphs and finding the topic sentences. Thus, they can not become a successful reader and difficult get reading comprehension. Bayaktar (2005) states that to dealt with it, teachers give good readers’ strategies, this section will focus on language proficiency the interaction among text features such as syntactic, lexical, discourse and topic of texts and reader variables such as reading skills, competence in the foreign language, and background knowledge is an important factors.
Furthermore, Bayaktar (2005) states that a strong balance of all four components is the ideal for the readers to get the best results in their reading comprehension and get their achievement in reading. To achieve the goal of reading, the student must mastery all of the reading competences such as grammatical, sociological, strategic and discourse competences. The implication of reading competences in reading achievement is every competences have sub skill which can attempted to explain the strategies of successful readers, not the unsuccessful ones. In other words, reading skill can show the reading performance by using each competences in reading. The useful skills in each competence that are needed in foreign language reading. It helps the readers easily see to get comprehend the text that have read. Without mastering this skill in every competence they cannot achieve goal of reading achievement
Therefore, it is important for the teacher especially for ESL teacher to make reading in a second language more different than reading in a first language. Reading competences as reading proficiency can give reading achievement to students with using reading strategies are applied in the reading process to attain comprehension as well as to overcome problems during the comprehension process.. “Achievement is the successful of assignment, it refers to someone’s proficiency which has been obtained” Darta (2002). This means that achievement is the result of learning process will be known by giving a set of question or evaluations are given by teacher. Thus, to know whether the students are successful or not at certain subject in learning teaching process, it evident through of response of their mark. It supported by Winkel (1994: 102) points out that learning process which resulted by the students will product the change in knowledge, skill, value, and attitude forms. These change are appear in their learning after answered the questions, statements, and task that given by the teacher.
Hedge (2003) states that any reading component of an English language course may include a set of learning goals for (1) the ability to read a wide range of texts in English. (2) building knowledge of language which will facilitate reading ability. (3) building schematic theory. (4) the ability to adapt the reading style according to reading purpose. (5) developing an awareness of the structure of written texts in English and (6) taking a critical stance to the contents of the text.the teachers should have a good technique in order the students can developed their reading habit and their skill for comprehending the content of reading text. So, the students are hoped to read effectively and efficiently
Thus, the importance of reading helps students in building knowledge of language. If they read very often, it will build their prior knowledge that is useful in comprehending a text. The last goal can be implemented at advanced level in making students be aware whether the internet content is authentic or not. Consequently, students can check the authenticity of the text by looking at the indicators like whether the article gives the name of the author or no, the date of publication, the aim of article, etc.
2.3 Cooperative Learning and their elements
Cooperative learning as defined by Robert Slavin (1990) in Jacobs (1996: 26) is a method of sharing ideas in which students work together to learn about something and responsible for their team-mate learning as well as their own. Johnson and Johnson (1991) define cooperative learning as follows:
“Cooperative learning refers to a learning mode in which students are working together (interaction appear) to accomplish shared learning goal, they have to work in small group consisting of 2-4 students in one group. Each student has to taken active role in the group and work cooperatively on presentation and projects”. Actually cooperative learning and group work are the process of learning where the students are put in to a small group working together to accomplish shared learning goal.
In addition that cooperative learning is a type of learning activity in which students have their own opportunity to share their own ideas or information to each other in their group. So, cooperative learning activity is all students in group are active.
Johnson, Johnson, and Smith (1994) stated five essential elements of cooperative learning processes. The first component is simultaneous interaction means that when the teacher makes the group of the students whether the group activities are huge or in the use of smaller group including pairs, greatly developing the amount of simultaneous interaction, because there is an interdependency of individual within the group.
The second component is positive interdependence which means the feeling among a group of students that any member of the groups helps everyone in the group. Positive interdependence in grouping encourages the members of group to help each other to work together. If any time members fail to do their part, consequently everyone in a group will suffers. Kagan (1994) states that positive interdependence occurs when gains of individuals or teams are positively correlated. If a gain for one student is associated with gains for other students, the individuals are positively interdependent.
The third component is face to face interaction. Johnson&Johnson (2000) define face to face interaction as students being in close physical proximity while involved in communication as they work together and talk through the task they are doing (as in Mappe, 2000 : 24 ). They promote each other learning by helping, questioning, suggesting, sharing information, and encouraging each others effect to be learned. The fourth component is individual accountability. It means that each member of the group is given accountability to work a task in the group. This occurs because some students try to avoid working of because the other wants to do everything (Mappe, 2000). Thus encouraging everyone to fill that they are individual accountable for the success of their group.
The last component is equal participation which equalizes participation in grouping. This emphasizes on giving role for each member of the group to encourage all students to be active learners. To encourage each member to play in important role in the group and to benefit from the group effort, cooperative learning seeks to equalize participation (Mappe, 2000). In conclusion, cooperative learning makes students help each other in giving support, ideas and reducing teacher’s dominant in classroom.
2.4 STAD is one of Cooperative Learning
One of Cooperative Learning techniques is STAD. According to the principles of CL namely positive independence, in which each member can succeed only if all members succeed. Face to face promotive interaction, during which students assist and support each other’s effort to achieve. Individual accountability refers to the fact that in STAD technique, the teams’ success depends on the team members in working together and making sure that students will take without teammate help. Interpersonal and small group skill, required to work cooperatively with others. Group processing, in which group reflect on how well they are working together and how their effectiveness as a group may be improved.
Group Investigation divides work among team members, who complete specific tasks and then reconvene to prepare a group presentation. Student Team Learning includes the Jigsaw method and its variations and the Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) method. Meanwhile, STAD is organized around the components of teacher presentation, team study, individual quizzes, individual improvement scoring, and team recognition.
The STAD technique organizes instruction according to the principles of positive interdependence, individual accountability, promotive, face-to-face interaction, social and collaborative skills, and group processing. Specifically, positive interdependence means that the success of students is linked with the success of their team members and may be structured through mutual goals, joint rewards, shared resources, complementary roles, and a common team identity. Individual accountability means that the performance of each member is assessed and results are given to the team and the individual so that team members cannot get a free ride on the efforts of their teammates.Yet, team members still help, share, encourage, and support each other’s efforts to succeed through promotive interaction within their groups. Furthermore, they use and develop their interpersonal and small-group skills of leadership, decision making, trust building, and conflict management. Finally, the team members perform group processing to reflect how well the team is functioning and how its effectiveness may be improved. As such, the main difference between the Learning Together and other CL models is that this model is less discrete and less prescriptive than the Structural and the Student Team Learning models that employ specific steps in lesson planning and somewhat “prepackaged curricula, lessons, and strategies in a prescribed manner” (Johnson & Johnson, 1998, p. 226).
2.5 Components of Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD Technique
Sharan (1994:6) mentions that STAD is made up of five interlocking components: class presentation, teams, quizzes, individual improvement scores, and team recognition. The first is class presentation which material in STAD initially introduced in a class presentation. This is most often a lecture-discussion conducted by the teacher, but could include audiovisual presentation. Class presentation in STAD differs from usual teaching only in that they must be clearly focused on the STAD unit. In this way, students realize that they must pay careful attention during the class presentation, because doing so will help them to do well on the quizzes, and their quiz score determine their team score.
Secondly is a team. Teams are composed of four or five students which represent a cross section of class in academic performance, sex, and race or ethnicity. The major function of the team is to prepare its member to do well on the quizzes. After the teacher presents the material, the team meets to study worksheet or other material. Most often, the study takes the form of students discussing problem together, comparing answers, and correcting any misconceptions if teammates make mistake.
The team is the most important feature of STAD. At every point, emphasis is placed on team members doing their best for the team, and on the team doing its best to help its members. The team provides the peer support for academic performance that is important for effects on learning, and provides the mutual concern and respect that are important for effect on such out-comes as intergroup relations, self-esteem, and acceptance of mainstreamed students.
Thirdly is a quiz. After approximately one period of teacher presentation and one period of team practice, the students take individual quizzes. The quizzes are composed with content-relevant questions, which students must answer. They are designed to test the knowledge gained by students from class presentations and during team practice. Students are not permitted to help one another during the quizzes. This makes sure that every student is individually responsible for knowing the material.
Fourthly is individual improvement scoring. In addition to the quiz score, students receive an improvement score each week indicating how well they are performing compared to their usual level of performance. Any student can contribute maximum points to his or her team in this scoring system, but no student can do so without showing definite improvement over past performance. The last is Team recognition which after giving quiz to students, teacher calculates score of all teams and determines the best team which gets highest score. Teacher is expected to give appreciation for the best team like giving little present or giving additional point as bonus, so that the students are motivated to do their best.
Thus, STAD technique makes students are motivated to do their best for getting higher scores than their past performance. Besides that, their score will contribute to their teams score.
2.6 Forming teams in STAD technique
Sharan (1994:7) explains that a team in STAD is a group of four or five students who represent a cross-section of the class in past performance, race or ethnicity, and sex. It is better to make combination between male and female students in a team and the team would also have a high performer, a low performer, and two average performers. “High performer” is a relative term which means high for class.
Students are assigned to team by teacher which the teacher can follow some steps as follow: the first step is ranking students in the class from highest to lowest in past performance on a sheet of paper. Students’ ranking can be based on their test scores (like in pretest score) or grades. The second step is deciding the number of teams which each team should have four members if possible. If the number indivisible by four, the class will have some teams that composed of five members. The third step is assigning students to teams. When assigning students to teams, balance the teams so that each team is composed of students whose performance levels range from low to average to high and the average performance level of all the teams in the class is about equal.
The fourth step is filling out team summary sheets. After assigning all students to teams, fill in the names of the students on each team on Team Summary Sheet and leaving the team name blank. And the last is determining initial base scores. Base scores represent students’ average scores on past quizzes or it can be based on their scores on past performance. So, it is better for teacher to assign students into teams rather than they choose teams by themselves because students tend to choose others like themselves.
2.7 Teaching English reading via STAD Technique
Cooperative learning is the activities in teaching learning process, where the students are divided into a little group. The students learning and work in small group interaction until they get experience.
Learning English in the group or discussion are more dynamic than in individually, because learning English through discussion can make students have a high motivation.
In STAD, the teacher present a lesson and students then study worksheet in four members teams (Slavin, 1995)
Students Team Achievement Divisions (STAD).They are as follows
Step 1. The teacher presents a lesson via textbook, lecture
Step 2. Heterogeneous teams of four or five students to study together in preparation for individually taking quiz on the material presented by the teacher teams often choose team names
Step 3. Students take quiz
Step 4. Each students’s score on the quiz and their average on the past quizzes are used to calculate how many points the students carried out their team. The points of member are assumed and counted for reward, such as certificate. These part are completely separate from grades which are based solely on the individually quiz score. Without references to whether that have improved or how well their team mate did (Jacob, 1996:94)
So, when teacher presents the lesson, students have to pay attention with the material during the class presentation, because doing so will help them to do well on the quizzes, and their quiz scores determine the team score. Therefore, every member of group have to understand that lesson because they will do quiz individually, which they are not allowed to help each other. This individual score will be compared with their previous quiz score. Finally, the additional point will be given for group that has the average improvement from individual score of each member.
Slavin (1990) recommends for how to compute team points are as follow: 1). Student’s quiz score is more than 10 points below past average, he/she gives 0 points for team.2) Student’s quiz score is 10 points below to 1 point below past average, he/she gives 10 points for team. 3) Student’s quiz score is same with past average to 10 points above past average; he/she gives 20 points for team, and 4) Student’s quiz score is more than 10 points above past average or perfect paper (regardless of past average), he/she gives 30 points for team.
In Awarding recognition, teams that average 15 to 19 improvement points receive a “good team” certificate. Teams that average 20 to 24 improvement points receive an achievement levels after they had engaged in “great team” certificate, and teams that average 25 to 30 improvement points receive a “super team” certificate.
Thus, all of students are possibly to get maximum point for their group’ score without seeing their last score level. This make them are motivated to do best for their quiz in order they can have high score standard for the next quiz.
2.8 The Advantages of STAD Technique in Teaching and Learning Process
STAD method has had positive effects on many important outcomes in addition to achievement. One of these is race relations. Several studies have reported that this method increased the number of friendships between black and white students (Slavin, 1985). One of the STAD studies (Slavin, 1979) reported that this positive effects continued into the following school year, when students were no longer in the junior high school classes which they had experienced the program.
Studies of STAD have documented significant gains in students self esteem, liking of class, attendance, and behavior (Slavin, 1990). STAD methods are often used in classes containing mainstreamed students with academic handicaps and have been effective both for improving this student’ achievement and behavior and for increasing their acceptance by their classmates (Slavin, 1990).
Furthermore, Armstrong (1998) reported that the use of STAD in the upper secondary social studies classroom had significant effect on the academic achievement and attitude towards social studies. Students commented that using STAD in the social studies classroom made learning fun and the content easier to understand. The teacher felt in the treatment students were enjoying class more than the comparison group and were taking a more active role in the class.
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
This research attempted to know the improving of students’ reading achievement through STAD technique. The procedure of this study consists of design of the study, subject of the study, factors that are observed instrument of the study, procedure of the study, technique of data collecting, marking scheme, pilot study, and technique of data analysis.
3.1 Design of the study
Design of this study was classroom action research design that focused on the improving of students’ reading achievement of Grade XI IA 3 of Senior High School 1 Pomalaa. The researcher conducted two cycles based on the problem found in Senior High School 1 Pomalaa that relating to the students reading achievement. Each cycle consist of three meetings. At the end of each cycle, the researcher gave test to measure students’ reading achievement.
In classroom action research there are four steps suggested by Kemis’ model namely planning, action, observation, & reflection.
The steps are explained below:
Kemmis model (Cited in Hopkins, 1985)
In this section the activities were:
- Researcher and teacher prepared lesson scenario that apply in teaching reading at action step. It would conduct by teacher of this subject
- Researcher and teacher prepared the activity in teaching and learning process through STAD technique.
- Researcher and teacher prepared the instrument of the study namely observation sheet and note taking to collect the data
- Researcher and teacher prepared reading test used to know the students achievement before action and during action or cycles
- The achievement standard in Senior High School 1 Pomalaa is that 75 % of the total students achieve score
3.1.2 Action and observation
Action is a session where the researchers as teacher thought the students by using STAD technique.The teaching procedures were as follows:
1. Pre activity
- Teacher greeted to students
- Teacher called the students name
- Teacher gave brainstorming about new topic
- Teacher informed the instructional objectives
2. Main activity
- Gave brief information about the steps of STAD technique.
- Assigned students to teams. Team were heterogeneous that consisted of four or five members. They were divided in some groups. In all group, each member got head number, A, B.C and D.
- Teacher distributed the reading text in each group
- Students received same reading text and same task
- Asked students to do the task and divide question based on the head number of students
- Asked students to discuss in pairs (monitor the students)
- Asked students to share group answer
- Gave individual quiz
- Calculated to know the students achievement
- Announced the result of the teams and gives reward
3. Post activity
- Asked students to review the material
- Asked students to conclude the material
Whereas observation is the session in which the researcher collects the data that is related to the application of STAD technique in solving problem and students competitions.
In this session, the result of observation and evaluation steps collected and analyzed. In this step, the strengths and weakness in the first cycle would be repaired in the next cycle.
3.2 Subject of the study
The subject of this study was Grade XI IA 3 which consisted of 24 students who enrolled in academic year 2010/2011.
3.3 Factors that observed
The factors that observed were as follows:
1. The application of STAD technique in teaching reading. The researcher observed the teacher during teaching reading through STAD technique.
2. Students’ performance in teaching learning process. The researcher observed the students’ enthusiasm through STAD technique
3. The strategies of teacher in solving the problem.
4. Students’ achievement on pretest and on the final evaluation. The researcher saw how the student’s achievement in pretest, first cycle until the last cycle conducted.
3.4 Instrument of the study
The instruments used in this study were as follows:
1 . Reading test
This instrument used to measure students’ reading achievement in action for each cycle.
2 . Observation sheet
The observation sheet used to observe the implementation of teaching reading through STAD technique in solving problem, students’activity during action, and teacher strategy to overcome students’ problem by using technique.
3. Note taking
Note taking used to take the data about the activity in learning process and others data which related to the object of study.
3.5 The instructional Material
The material that presented can be seen in the following table
Table 3.5 the instructional material
I (16 February 2011)
Fable/ The lion and the mouse
II ( 17 February 2011)
Fable/ The crocodile and the mouse deer
III (23 February 2011)
IV (24 February 2011)
Love / Who is to love
V ( 2 March 2011)
Love / The CD boy
VI (3 March 2011)
3.6 Procedures of Data Collection:
In this study, researcher collected the data by using instruments. Researcher filled the observation sheet and field note. The observation was used to see the real condition in the class in every meeting during action (teaching and learning process), the applying technique STAD and students’ reading achievement. Field note was used to note everything that refers to students’ reading achievement, the weakness and strength in every meeting, the factors that support and block the study and to note students’ work in every meeting.
3.7 Procedure of Teaching Reading through STAD technique
The procedures of teaching learning through STAD technique were as follows:
Step 1. The teacher presented a reading text to the students via teacher-led activity
Step 2. The teacher divided the students into groups of four with a head number A, B, C, and D. The teacher distributed the reading text
Step 3. The teacher asked the students to work together with their teammates. The teams of course members worked together to learn the material on the text. The students working together on cooperative learning can be seen on the following:
a. The students read the text individually. Each member of group has to take a responsibility toward a part of task. It means that the teacher asked students to divided the task based on the head number of the groups member
b. The students worked in pairs (A with B and C with D)
c. Shared information between course members of groups. This done to get the same perception or opinion toward the task given in facing the sharing group answer.
d. Shared group answer. In sharing group answer, the teacher asked the question on the text that each group gave their answer
Step 4. The teacher asked the students to prepare his/her self individually to take answer the quiz.
Step 5. The teacher gave quiz to the students individually.
Step 6. The teacher collected, scored, and calculated the students’ answer on the quiz
Step 7. The teacher announced the team’s award and gave reward
Step 8. The teacher reviewed the students’ reading comprehension on the text
3.8 Pilot Study
Before applying the technique in this study, this test was piloted to the other students who were not included as the subject of this study, namely Grade XI IA The purpose is to see the reliability of the test and also to see how long the test can be done or how long the students need the time to finish the test.
The formula used was KR 21. (Arikunto, 1997)
K = Number of item test
M = Means score
St2 = Standard deviation score
The criteria of reliability
0,80 - 1,00 = very high
0,60 - 0,79 = high
0,40 - 0,59 = enough
0,20 - 0,39 = low
0,00 - 0,19 = very low (Isaac,1987:87)
3.9 Marking Scheme
The marking scheme of this study namely 1 for each right answer and 0 for the wrong answer. The formulas were as follows:
Score = Total of correct answer x 10
In determining the students’ reading achievement, the researcher used the following criteria:
8-10 = very good
7-7,9 = good
6-6,9 = enough
0-5,9 = low (Sudijono,1987:17)
3.10 Technique of Data Analysis
The data of this study were analyzed through three steps as follows:
1. The researcher analyzed the data from different instrument.
2. The researcher analyzed data qualitatively based on the results of observation on teaching and learning process conducted.
3. The researcher described the data quantitatively after analyzing the results of reading test.
Alex, L.G. (1988). Longman English Grammar. London: Longman.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. (1997). Dasar-dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan.Jakarta:Bumi Aksara
Armstrong, Scott and Palmer Jesse. (1998). Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) in a twelfth grade classroom: effect on student achievement and attitude. Retrieved-July-23rd-2009-from-http://-findarticles.-com/p/articles/mi-qa3823/is-199804/ai-n8783828/
Bandura,A.(1965a). Influence of models’ reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of personality and social psychology 28 (2): 117–148.
Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1 (1), 1-47.
Carrel, Patricia L. & Eisterhold, J.C. (1983). Schema theory and ESL reading pedagogy. TESOL-quarterly,-Retrieved-August-12,2010-fromhttp://-Teaching-Reading-Comprehension -to-ESL-EFL-Learners
Darta. (2002). The effect of using Jigsaw technique on students’ reading achievement at the third year of SMP Negeri 1 Kolaka. Undergraduate Thesis. Haluoleo University.
Diwiyanti, Mahmud. (1999). Psikologi pendidikan. FIP-IKIP, Yogyakarta: BPFE Press
Eskey, D. E. (1988). Holding in the bottom: An interactive approach to the language problems of second language readers. In P. Carrell, J. Devine, D. Eskey, (Eds.), Interactive approaches to second language reading (p. 93-100). Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
Fitriyaningsih, (2009). Improving reading competence using students team achievement divisions (STAD) for the first year students of Smp N 2 Penawangan . FKIP Muhammadiyah Surakarta: Undergraduate thesis
Ghazi Ghaith, (2003). Effects of the learning together model of cooperative learning on english as a foreign language reading achievement, academic self-esteem, and feelings of school alienation. Bilingual Research Journal, 27:3 Fall 2003. Retrieved August 15th, 2010 fromhttp://www.cooperative learning ghazi pdf
Grabe, W. (1991). Current developments in second language reading research. TESOL Quarterly.Retrieved-August-12,2010-fromhttp://-Teaching-ReadingComprehension-to-ESL-EFL-Learners
Guthrie,J.T. (1996). Concept-oriented reading instruction to develop motivational and cognitive-aspects-of-reading.-Retrieved-August-15,2010-from-http-://www google-
B, Hasan. (2005). A communicative competence perspective on difficulties in l2 reading. Unpublished thesis: Middle East Technical University
Hedge, Tricia. (2003). Teaching & learning in the language classroom. UK: OUP. Retrieved Agust 12,2010 fromhttp:// -Teaching-Reading-Comprehension-to-ESL-EFL-Learners
Hesham, Suleiman Alyousef. (2006). Journal of language and learning volume 5 number. Journal of Language and Learning Volume 5 Number 1 2006.Retrieved-Agust 12,2010 fromhttp:// -Teaching-Reading-Comprehension-to-ESL-EFL-Learners
Huda, Nuril. (1997). Language learning and teaching, issues and trend. Malang:Universitas Negeri malang
Isaac, Stephen. (1987). Handbook in research and education. Sandiego California: Edit Publisher
Jacob, George, Gan Sowok, and Ball Jasica. (1996). learning cooperative learning via cooperative learning, Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Center.
Johnson, Johnson, & Smith. (1993). Active learning: cooperation in the college classroom. Edina: Interaction Book Company
Kagan, Spencer, (1994). Cooperative Learning. San Juan Capistrano: Kagan Cooperative Learning (KCL)