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Thursday, April 26, 2012

THE EFFECT OF STAD TECHNIQUE ON THE GRAMMAR ACHIEVEMENT OF THE THIRD YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 2 BAU-BAU


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background
            In learning English, language skill and language component are both related. Language skills are classified into speaking, reading, listening, and writing. While language component covers grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, etc.
Grammar is one of the components of English language learning, which is commonly focused in most of educational field. Therefore, the previous applied curriculum for Junior High School-Competence Base Curriculum (CBC) and also the current developed curriculum (Curriculum Based School Development) of English view that grammatical pattern of a language is important. In this case, the presence of the grammatical component of the language in the applied curriculum is integrated with the language skills. 
            Wilkins (1972) in Yandini (2009) states that “without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed”. Therefore, grammar is very important to learn because it can help us to learn a language more quickly and more efficiently especially for the second language learning. Furthermore, it is important to learn the use of grammar in learning English as it can support the learners to be able to produce language well, particularly English.  
            By looking at the importance of grammar itself, the English teacher as the
facilitator of teaching and learning process in the classroom has important role to improve the students’ grammar achievement. They have to give a chance to the students to be more active in the learning process.
To make students become active, teachers should apply the appropriate methods or techniques in the teaching and learning process, because the appropriate technique is one of the elements or factors that should be considered by the teacher to reach the students’ learning outcome or students’ success in their learning. As Nunan in Ridlo (2005) said “Knowledge of method is important, because the greater awareness you have of what you are doing, if you are conscious of the processes underlying the learning that you are involved in, then learning will be more effectively and easily”.
Although the techniques of teaching grammar have already been conducted by some researchers, but the fact shows that there are many students who are still poor in their grammar achievement. This problem seems to be the case experienced by the third year students of SMP Negeri 2 Bau-Bau in learning English grammar. Based on the result of preliminary research that was conducted by giving 30 items of grammar test, it shows that the grammar achievement of the third year students at that school are not yet on a satisfactory  level. It is indicated by the students score in which the mean score of the result of grammar test from three classes are 5.15, 5.33, and 5.35. According to the classification by Sayekti (1985:64), score 0-5,9 is low, 6-6,9 is moderate, 7-7,9 is high and 8-10 is very high. Thus, we can conclude that the grammar achievement of the third year students of SMP Negeri 2 Bau-Bau are not yet on a satisfactory level. Therefore, teachers need to apply an alternative method to present grammar in classroom. In this case, they have to create or use a model of teaching and learning process which could involve the students more than the teachers.
            Sharan (1994:326) stated that, “Cooperative Learning is a group centered and student centered approach to classroom teaching and learning”. Thus, we can say that cooperative learning is one of the learning methods that encourages students to be more active or it can also be said as a method that is make students centered. Thus the researcher introduced one of the techniques of Cooperative Learning in the teaching and learning process particularly in teaching grammar namely STAD technique.
STAD is one of the techniques in Cooperative Learning which involved the students active learning in the teaching and learning process. According to Slavin (1990) in Sharan   (1994) “The main idea behind STAD is to motivate students to encourage and help each other master skills presented by the teacher”. So, we can say that this technique focuses on giving motivation for a group of students in order that they can work together in small group interaction.
There have been some studies conducted about the technique of teaching grammar such as PGR, EGRA, by using reading text, group work, etc. But there were not the previous researchers who use STAD technique. Thus the researcher is interested to conduct a research in this technique in order that STAD technique will be more familiar. Another reasons why the researcher choose STAD technique in this research because STAD is a simple technique which consists of five major components, namely class presentation, teams, quizzess, individual improvement score, and team recognition. Here the students discuss in a simple way and they are working together to get a good mark for their team.
The principle problem in the field of study (SMP Negeri 2 Bau-Bau) indicate that the students are still poor in grammar and based on the consideration of basic tenses simple present tense, simple past, simple future, and present continuous still in low level so the researcher also still focus on those tenses.
To solve the problem the researcher observed some techniques of teaching grammar. Then, the researcher took one technique in which she have read from the recommendation of previous STAD research. Finally she comes to apply STAD technique in teaching grammar on the class. In this case, the writer will investigate the influence of STAD technique on the grammar achievement of the third year students of SMP Negeri 2 Bau-Bau. This technique is useful to increase students grammar achievement because the students can work together to practice their language ability in which they can exchange information, reinforce each other, give feedback and also be responsible to their answer in their group.

1.2 Research Question
The research question of this study was: Is there any significant effect of using STAD technique on the grammar achievement of the third year students of SMP Negeri 2 Bau-Bau.


1.3 Objective of the Study
The objective of the study was to find out whether there is a significant effect of STAD technique on the grammar achievement of the third year students of SMP Negeri 2 Bau-Bau.

1.4 Significances of the Study
1.) This study is hoped to become a reference for the English teachers in applying STAD technique to increase the students’ grammar achievement.
2.) This study is hoped to become an information resource for further studies who want to conduct a research by using STAD technique.

1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study focused on describing the students’ grammar achievement of the third year students of SMP Negeri 2 Bau-Bau after being taught grammar through STAD technique. The material presented was grammar test which consists of Simple Present Tense, Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Simple Future. The fourth of Tenses were selected based on the teaching material (Handbook used by school grade IX) and the Curriculum of KTSP.

1.6 Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this study was: “There is a significant effect of STAD technique on the grammar achievement of the third year students of SMP Negeri 2 Bau-Bau.

1.7 Definition of Term
To avoid misunderstanding of the term used in this study, the writer provided some definitions as follows:
1. Cooperative learning is students work together in a small group share and learn each other.
2. STAD (Student Teams Achievement Division) is one of teaching technique in which students work in group totally on each division to get success in group.
3. Grammar achievement is the result of study that reached by the students after teaching them grammar under STAD technique.

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